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Violence Research Centre


Three recently published academic papers focus on children's aggressive tendencies and victimisation. Prof Manuel Eisner co-authored the papers with collaborators from different universities, including researchers affiliated to the Violence Research Centre.


  • Developing and Validating an Experience Sampling Measure of Aggression: The Aggression-ES Scale by Tridip Jyoti Borah, Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner and Irina Jugl

    Experience sampling methodologies are likely to play an important role in advancing our understanding of momentary influences on aggression, including short-term antecedent psychological states and situations. In this study, we evaluate whether a newly developed experiencing sampling measure of aggression, the Aggression Experience Sampler (Aggression-ES), provides a valid and reliable measure of aggression in experience sampling contexts. Participants were a convenience sample of 23 young adults recruited from the local University community. Data were collected using an experience sampling smartphone application over 8 days. They were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Our results support the within- and between-person reliability and the criterion validity of the Aggression-ES. The Aggression-ES represents a good choice of measure for use in experience sampling studies of aggression. Further work in other samples will help to provide further validity evidence for the measure.


  • The effects of violent victimization on violent ideations in late adolescence. A longitudinal study by Manuel Eisner, Daniela Kaiser, Aja Murray, Amy Nivette, Denis Ribeaud, Jean-Louis van Gelder and Margit Averdijk

    Violent ideations are increasingly recognized as an important psychological process involved in aggressive and violent behavior. However, little is known about the processes that contribute to violent ideations. This paper therefore examines the effects of dispositional and situational factors on violent ideations during late adolescence. More specifically, it examines the extent to which violent victimization triggers violent ideations. Furthermore, it examines whether effects of violent victimization on violent ideations differ by gender. This study uses data from two waves of the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood into Adulthood (z-proso; n= 1,465). Full-information maximum likelihood regressions are used to regress violent ideations at age 17 on social and psychological characteristics measured at age 15 and reports of previous year violent victimization measured at age 17. The results show that violent ideations at age 17 are strongly influenced by violent thoughts, aggressive behavior, violent media consumption, moral neutralization of violence, and internalizing symptoms measured at age 15. Moreover, victimization experiences increase the likelihood of violent ideations over and above pre-existing dispositions and prior violent ideations. The effects are stronger for adolescent males than for females.


Pictures: Aislinn Ritchie, Philippe Put

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